After Union of Soviet Socialists Republics (USSR) withdrew its army completely from Afghanistan in 1989, fighting between the communist backed government and Mujahedeen (Holy war Fighters) continued which they overthrew in 1992. The best-known mujahedeen were various infirmed Afghan opposition groups that fought against the USSR allied Afghan governments during the 1980s, and then fought against each other in Afghan civil war.The parties involved were Hizb-e-Islami Afghanistan (Afghanistan Islamic Party), Jammiat-e-Islami (Islamic Party), Dawat-e-Islami (Islam Invitation Party), Junbish-e-Milli Islami (National Islamic Movement), Wahdat-e-Milli (National Unity) and Harakat-e-Islami (Islamic Movement) and many other minor ethnic parties. Afterwards, except Hizb-e-Islami, they all established a co-unit called Northern Alliance.
With cooperation of International community Mujahedeen prematurely formed a leadership council, but never agreed on the distributed official positions. They captured one or other part of capital Kabul and started fighting among each other. The Central government had no authority and provinces were conquered by unfettered Mujahedeen commanders. Instability, theft, robberies and killings were on their peak. The country sank even further into anarchism which caused thousands of civilian casualties in Kabul and elsewhere and created causing thousands of people to be displaced and become refugees. Mujahedeen were not the holy fighters anymore, but warlords.
In reaction to the anarchy, prevalent warlords in the country, and the lack of stability in the Kabul government, a movement arose called the Taliban. The Free Encyclopedia stated online, “By 2001, the Taliban, with backing from the Pakistani ISI (Pakistan’s intelligence agency) and possibly even the regular Pakistan army had defeated most of the militias and controlled most of Afghanistan. The remaining militias were in the north-east of the country. Many Taliban were educated in madrassas (religious schools) and supported by Pakistan just like as the mujahedeen groups were backed by Russia, Iran, India, France and Saudi Arabia. In 2001 with U.S. and International military aid ousted the Taliban from power with the help of Northern Alliance.”
Northern Alliance was then widely given the opportunity to contribute in the new installed government. This opened the doors for Warlords to re gain the power, and impose their stone ages’ ideas on people and achieved their filthy goals.
This three-decade war has introduced gun culture and affected Afghanistan badly, leaving its footprints in every path of life. It has destroyed economical, health and educational infrastructures and widely harmed ordinary lives. Furthermore, people have experienced shocking events of shootings, killings and butchering, which changed them into savage and wild people. Warlords had played and are playing the biggest role in all this and sabotaging the country.
Although with the cooperation of International community, Afghanistan has been able to launch the presidential and parliamentary elections, making new constitution and having an elected parliament, but former commanders who continue to control private militia remain a dangerous and commanding force. Many have ties to criminal networks linked to country’s growing opium production and trade. They have long records of similar abuses in the past.
Using their wide force and influence, they won most of parliaments seats. This made them more powerful and now able to back their colleague warlords who are already working on high ranking posts in Afghan government. Warlords and their militias, operating in across the country and their political presence is the major problem.
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